December 1, 2021 — Journal of the American Society of Echocardiology (JASE)
Left ventricular (LV) apical aneurysm is a unique morphological entity and novel adverse risk marker existing within the broad phenotypic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Its true prevalence in the HCM population is likely underestimated because of inherent limitations of conventional noncontrast echocardiography. The authors hypothesized that contrast echocardiography is a reliable imaging technique compared with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for the detection of apical aneurysms. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography in the detection of LV apical aneurysms in patients with HCM in comparison with the gold standard, CMR.
One hundred twelve patients with HCM identified from an institutional clinical database, who underwent echocardiographic and CMR examinations within 12 months and had LV apical aneurysms identified on either or both imaging modalities, were retrospectively analyzed. Discordant cases were reviewed by an expert panel, and a consensus was reached regarding the presence or absence of an apical aneurysm. The reason for any discrepancy was recorded.
The mean age of the patients was 59 ± 13 years, and 73% were men. Sixty-four (57%) underwent contrast echocardiography. The median interval between echocardiography and CMR was 118 days (interquartile range, 61–237 days). Thirty-nine patients (35%) had discordance between echocardiographic and CMR findings, of whom 20 had aneurysms reported on echocardiography but not CMR and 19 vice versa. Upon reanalysis by the expert panel, aneurysms were initially missed on CMR in 16 patients (80%), largely because of interpretation error secondary to small aneurysms, with a mean aneurysm size of 0.82 ± 0.38 cm in these cases. Before secondary review by the expert panel, contrast echocardiography had sensitivity of 97% compared with 85% for CMR (P = .0198) and 64% for noncontrast echocardiography (P = .0001). After secondary review, contrast echocardiography had sensitivity of 98% compared with 67% for noncontrast echocardiography (P = .0001) and 97% for CMR (P = 1.00).
Contrast echocardiography has high sensitivity for detecting LV apical aneurysms and should be used routinely in the evaluation and risk stratification of patients with HCM.
Authors: Deacon Z. J. Lee, MBChB, MRCP, CCDS, Raymond H. Chan, MD, MPH, FRCPC,
Mahdi Montazeri, MD, Sara Hoss, MD, Arnon Adler, MD, Elsie T. Nguyen, MD, FRCPC,
and Harry Rakowski, MD, FRCPC, FACC, FASE, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Division of Cardiology, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto General Hospital, Canada.
Read full text at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2021.07.015