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May 12, 2021 — Pediatric Radiology


Pediatric applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are growing. Evaluation of the kidneys and adrenal glands in children using intravenous administration of US contrast agents, however, is still an off-label indication. Pediatric CEUS applications for kidneys are similar to those in adults, including ischemic disorders, pseudo- versus real tumors, indeterminate lesions, complex cystic lesions, complicated pyelonephritis, and abscesses. CEUS applications for evaluation of adrenal glands in children are limited, mainly focusing on the assessment and follow-up of adrenal trauma and the differentiation between an adrenal hemorrhage and a mass. This review addresses the current experience in pediatric CEUS of the kidneys and adrenal glands. By extrapolating the established knowledge for US contrast evaluations in the adult kidney to the pediatric context we can note opportunities for CEUS clinical use in children.

Authors: Susan J. Back1, Patricia T. Acharya2, Richard D. Bellah1, Harris L. Cohen3, Kassa Darge1, Annamaria Deganello4, Zoltan Harkanyi5, Damjana Ključevšek6, Aikaterini Ntoulia1, Harriet J. Paltiel7, Maciej Piskunowicz8

1 Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
2 Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
3 Department of Radiology, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA
4 Department of Radiology, King’s College Hospital, King’s College London, London, UK
5 Department of Radiology, Heim Pal National Pediatric Institute, Budapest, Hungary
6 Department of Radiology, University Children’s Hospital Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
7 Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA
8 Department of Radiology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland

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