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Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine


To retrospectively explore the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating small renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) from angiomyolipomas (AMLs), and distinguishing between clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), and chromophobe RCC (chRCC).

Methods and Analysis
A total of 151 patients with small renal masses (110 ccRCCs, 12 pRCCs, 9 chRCCs, and 20 AMLs) were enrolled between August 2016 and October 2019.

There were significant differences in terms of enhancement intensity (EI), enhancement homogeneity, perilesional rim-like enhancement (PRE), wash in, and wash out (WO) between RCC and AML (P = .000, .011, .000, .001, .000, respectively). Although there was no significant difference in EI between pRCC and chRCC (P = .272), EI of ccRCC was higher than that of pRCC (P = .000) and chRCC (P = .010). Multivariate regression analysis showed PRE and fast WO were related to RCC (OR = 18.189, 15.141, respectively). Although there were no significant differences in the sensitivity and area under the curve (AUC) between PRE and fast WO (95.0% vs. 95.0%, P = 1.000 and .880 vs. 0.799, P = .123, respectively), the specificity of PRE in predicting RCC was higher than that of fast WO (80.92% vs. 64.89%, P = .011). The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of the two characteristics combination for differentiating RCC from AML were 95.0%, 90.8%, and 0.920, respectively, and that of EI for differentiating between ccRCC, pRCC, and chRCC were 81.0%, 78.2%, and 0.796, respectively.

CEUS has value in differentiating small RCCs from AMLs and distinguishing ccRCC, a subtype associated with a greater likelihood of malignant behavior from pRCC and chRC.

Authors:  Hongli Cao MD 1, Liang Fang MD, PhD 1, Lin Chen MD, Ph1 1, Jia Zhan MD 1, Xuehong Diao MD, PhD 1, Yingchun Liu MD 1, Chen Lu MD 2, Zhengwang Zhang MD 2, PhD, Yue Chen MD 1

1Department of Ultrasound, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China;
2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Clinical Geriatric Medicine, Shanghai, China

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