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August 24, 2021 — Pediatric Radiology


Gray-scale and color/power Doppler ultrasound (US) are the first-line imaging modalities to evaluate the spleen,gallbladder and pancreas in children. The increasing use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a reliable andsafe method to evaluate liver lesions in the pediatric population promises potential for imaging other internal organs.Although CEUS applications of the spleen, gallbladder and pancreas have been well described in adults, they havenot been fully explored in children. In this manuscript, we p res e nt a n overview of the applicat ion s of CEUS fo rnormal variants and diseases affecting the spleen, gallb ladder and pancreas. We highlight a variety of cases asexamples of how CEUS can serve in the diagnosis and follow-up for such diseases in children. Our discussionincludes specific examination techniques; presentation of the main imaging findings i n various benign and malignantlesions of the spleen, gallbladder and pancreas in children; and acknowledgment of the limitations of CEUS forthese organs. Keywords Biliary

Authors: Doris Franke1& Sudha A. Anupindi2,3& Carol E. Barnewolt4& Thomas G. Green5& Mary-Louise C. Greer6&Zoltan Harkanyi7& Norbert Lorenz8& M. Beth McCarville9& Hans-Joachim Mentzel10& Aikaterini Ntoulia2&Judy H. Squires11

1 Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases,MHH, Hannover, Germany

2 Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA

3 Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

4 Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

5 Department of Radiology, Crouse Hospital,Syracuse, NY, USA

6 Department of Diagnostic Imaging,The Hospital for Sick Children,Department of Medical Imaging,University of Toronto, Canada

7 Department of Radiology, Heim Pal National Pediatric Institute, Budapest, Hungary

8 Children’s Hospital, Dresden Municipal Hospital, Teaching-Hospital of Technical University Dresden, Germany\

9 Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children’sResearchHospital, Memphis, TN, USA

10 Section of Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology,University Hospital, Jena, Germany

11Department of Radiology,Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center,Pittsburgh, PA, USA


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